How to write a factual proposal
How do the visual techniques used in a media production create meaning for the audience and help convey the story? (e.g. How does a ‘Point Of View’ (POV) shot encourage audiences to identify with characters or situations? In what way does it produce a degree of realism?)
Camera techniques to examine are:
- Shot sizes – (eg. L.S. = Long Shot)
- Camera angles – (eg. Low Angle is looking up at subject)
- Camera movement – (eg. Tracking shot)
- Framing & Composition – (Position of action within the frame)
- Depth of Focus – (‘Depth of field’ of the shot ie.: What is sharp in focus and what is soft and out of focus). Compare ‘Deep Focus’ Vs ‘Shallow Focus’.
Lighting techniques to examine include:
- Use of 3 point lighting set up – (Key Light, Fill Light & Back Light).
- Use of Low-key lighting – (Typically uses only one Key light, which emphasises the shape of an object by throwing areas into deep shade and most commonly used in film noir and horror genres).
- Use of Ambient lighting – (Available light eg. Shooting EXT. with just daylight).
- Artificial lighting – (Use of not only studio/location lights, but also incidental lighting in the mise-en-scene, eg. candles; desk lamps; street lights)
- Hard/Soft Lighting – (Difference in intensity of the lighting).
- Flare – (The reflection of light into the camera lens; Creates bright spots and streaks of light. Flares are often used creatively to ‘enhance’ a shot.
Editing techniques to examine include:
- Master shot – (Usually a wide shot)
- Insert edit – (Inserts additional shots covered within in the master shot but using different shot sizes and angles such as a C/U etc.).
- Cutaway – (Has several uses: a) Shows what the character is looking at e.g. Their view through a window. b) To conceal the deletion of an unwanted part of the shot. c) To allow the joining of different parts of two versions of that shot, e.g. Take 1 and take 2).
- Cross-cutting – (Action occurring at the same time usually in two different locations. Often used to suggest both actions are happening simultaneously).
- Slow/Fast cutting – (Used to adjust the pace, feel and tension of a sequence).
- Point 0f View (POV) – (Characters view point)
- Montage sequence – Series of shots edited into a sequence, usually used to suggest the passage of time.
- Composited/Keyed shots – (Chroma Key i.e.: Green screen)
- Slow Motion – (Slowing down the action, usually to emphasise a dramatic moment).
- Timelapse – (Speeding up the action. Usually done on slow moving action eg. From sunrise to sunset).